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Renal Edema

Time:  2014-01-07 16:42

What is renal edema?

The pathological process of excessive fluid accumulating in the tissue space or body cavity is called edema. According to aetiological agent, edema is divided into renal edema, liver edema, cardiac edema, nutritional edema and lymphedema and so on.

If the edema is because of kidney dysfunction, this edema is called renal edema.

There are two reasons which can cause renal edema. One is glomerular filtration rate decreases while the reabsorption function of renal tubules to water and sodium is so good. In this case, the retention of water and sodium will present. And at this time the increase of blood capillary permeability of the whole body can result in the retention of water in tissue space. This symptom is often seen in nephritis. Another is large amounts of proteinuria leads to the low plasma protein, which will also cause renal edema.

The characteristics of renal edema

Edema primarily occurs in the loose parts of organization, including eyelids, face and ankle. And edema is obvious especially in the morning. In severe case, lower limbs and your whole body is going to show the symptom of edema. The characteristic of renal edema is soft and movable, which is called pitting edema clinically, namely, if you press your skin with your fingers, the skin is pitting.

Treatment principles

The radical treatment is to treat the pathogenesis, but this method works slowly. Therefore, patients with renal edema have to take effective treatment timely targeting different pathogenesis, including:

1. Limit the intake of sodium

Nephritis or renal edema all have the symptom of sodium retention. Hence patients should limit the sodium intake. But you must remember the sodium should be in proper amount, otherwise hyponatremia will occur.

2. Diuresis

It is necessary to take some diuretics when limiting sodium. It can not only promote sodium excretion to alleviate edema but also alleviate high blood pressure as well as relieve cardiac load.

3. Control protein intake

For renal edema patients, they must control protein intake strictly and they can take immunosuppressive drugs, such as dexamethasone and prednisone, to repair the normal glomerular permeability.

4. Supplement some plasma protein.

Nursing diagnosis

1. The excessive fluid and the decrease of glomerular filtration rate leads to sodium retention.

2. The prolonged massive proteinuria is related to hypoproteinemia.

3. The impaired skin integrity has relation with edema and malnutrition.

Nursing aim

The edema disappears or is alleviated;

Keep the skin intact without broken skin and pressure sores.

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